Keeping Your Brain Healthy as You Age

« Back to All Blogs
happy senior woman who has maintained healthy brain aging
November 13, 2023

As the years go by, the importance of maintaining our brains’ health and functionality becomes increasingly evident. Even the idea of cognitive decline can be a source of anxiety and despair as we get older. The good news is that there are concrete steps we can take to support our brains as we age.

Brain Health and Aging

The human brain is often referred to as the “command center” of our bodies and undergoes vast changes as it matures. As we age, subtle changes occur in our cognitive functions. These changes are not a cause for immediate alarm, but rather a reflection of the brain’s adaptability. For example, with each passing year, memory may not be as quick to retrieve specific details, and the speed at which we process sensory information may start to slow down. Although these shifts can be noticeable, it is vital to differentiate between the normal progression of age-related changes and more serious cognitive disorders. 

What Causes Age-Related Brain Changes?

Why do our brains change so much as we age? As we get older, neurons, which are the cells responsible for transmitting information within our brains, may not fire as swiftly as they once did [1]. This can lead to a lag in the retrieval of memories, like recalling names, dates, or specific facts, that you could once recall effortlessly. The brain’s network of connections may experience gradual rewiring, which causes us to approach decision-making or problem-solving slightly differently. It is all part of the brain’s maturation process, and not all cognitive changes are indicative of cognitive decline. 

Normal Aging Brain Changes vs. Severe Aging Brain Changes

Although many cognitive changes are normal to experience, it is crucial to distinguish these changes from more severe cognitive impairments. For example, dementia is not a regular consequence of aging. Alzheimer’s disease, which is one of the most well-known forms of dementia, exhibits distinct and progressive cognitive decline that goes beyond the typical changes in cognitive function associated with age. Some of the most important cognitive impairments to be aware of are:

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease[2]: This progressive neurodegenerative disorder affects memory, thinking, and behavior. As more time passes and the disorder worsens, it can lead to severe cognitive impairments that interfere with daily functioning. 
  2. Huntington’s Disease[3]: This genetic disorder causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to cognitive, emotional, and movement-related impairments. 
  3. Vascular Dementia[4]: This subtype of dementia is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain due to conditions like strokes or small vessel disease, which leads to memory loss and problems with reasoning. 
  4. Lewy Body Dementia[5]: This condition involves the abnormal accumulation of proteins in the brain, leading to cognitive fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and movement issues. 
  5. Parkinson’s Disease Dementia[6]: This cognitive decline occurs in individuals with Parkinson’s disease, causing problems with memory, attention, and problem-solving. 

Factors that Influence Brain Health as We Age

Although changes in cognitive function are normal to occur with age, and certain cognitive disorders are unavoidable, some factors influence overall brain health.

Diet and Nutrition

A balanced diet is an integral part of strengthening brain health. Foods rich in antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and essential vitamins provide the building blocks necessary for optimal brain function. Some foods that enhance your brain’s health are[7]:

  • Berries have high antioxidant content and can aid in protecting brain cells from oxidative stress. 
  • Fish, particularly salmon, has a healthy dose of omega-3 fatty acids, which can support the brain’s structure and function. 
  • Nuts and leafy greens enhance the brain’s nutritional arsenal. 

Physical Activity

Exercise is a key component of cognitive vitality. Getting regular physical exercises increases the blood flow to your brain, which promotes the growth of new neurons and neural connections[8]. A brisk walk, a swim, and even dancing contribute to the brain’s overall well-being. 

Mental Stimulation

Keeping your brain active and engaged through mental challenges gives you a daily “mental workout,” which can help keep things sharp. Puzzles, crossword puzzles, and sudoku games are all activities that strengthen your cognitive processes. Reading stimulates your imagination and expands your knowledge base. Additionally, learning a new instrument or skill invigorates your brain’s capacity for adaptation and problem-solving. 

Quality Sleep

Getting quality sleep each night is so important for all areas of your health. During sleep, the brain consolidates memories, processes emotions, and gets rid of unnecessary information. Establishing a healthy sleep schedule can contribute to improved cognitive function and emotional well-being. 

How to Maintain Brain Health

Maintaining brain health is crucial as we age. Thankfully, there are many ways to prevent brain health issues and keep your cognitive ability strong.

Stress Management

We all feel stress from time to time. It is a normal and healthy response that helps protect your body from potential dangers. However, a large amount of stress for long periods of time can quickly take a toll on our brain health. Chronic stress triggers the release of hormones that can impair cognitive function over time[9]. Therefore, learning how to effectively manage your stress can mitigate these effects. Some stress management techniques include meditation, mindfulness, and deep breathing exercises. 

Social Interaction

Humans are naturally social beings, and interacting with others is an important part of our well-being. Engaging in social activities, like spending time with friends and family, volunteering, or joining a club, strengthens emotional health and fosters cognitive resilience. Meaningful connections with others give us opportunities for stimulating conversations and an exchange of ideas, which keeps our brains active and engaged. 

Avoiding Harmful Habits

The day-to-day choices we make have a lasting impact on our brain health. Unhealthy habits like smoking, excessive drinking, and drugs have been linked to cognitive decline and an increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders[10]. Working towards quitting these habits helps reduce their impact on your brain’s health. Not to mention, quitting these habits will have an overall positive effect on your overall health!

Regular Check-Ups

Getting regular check-ups for seniors by your primary care physician or specialist is a preventative measure against potential health issues that could negatively impact your brain health. Common health issues like hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol not only affect your body but also have a great deal of influence on your cognitive function. By detecting and managing these conditions as early as possible, you are being proactive in maintaining your brain health and overall health. 

Brain Training and Cognitive Exercises

The brain has an incredible ability to adapt and rewire itself, which is known as neuroplasticity. Engaging in targeted brain training exercises can help enhance memory, attention, and problem-solving skills. There are many apps and games that are designed to stimulate cognitive functions and offer an enjoyable way to keep your brain in shape, such as Lumosity. Other ways to stimulate your brain and enhance its functions are through jigsaw puzzles, word puzzles, math puzzles, and many more. 

Senior Primary Care Services for the Greater Good

While cognitive decline and illnesses underscore the complexities of aging, they also create a need for early detection and preventative measures. By embracing a lifestyle that prioritizes mental and physical engagement, maintaining social connections, and making mindful choices, we can empower ourselves to shape the trajectory of our cognitive health. 

Greater Good Health understands the impact of preserving senior mental health, which is why we offer preventive care and other practices in our senior healthcare services. Find a primary care clinic near you, and contact us today to schedule an appointment.